Members of the Southern clergy, who had their own feelings of devotion toward their home states, approved the notion that a well-intentioned South was being morally condemned by a self-righteous and arrogant North. what was the main goal of early abolitionist societies? Have a correction or comment about this article? By that time, American abolitionists had realized the failure of gradualism and persuasion, and they subsequently turned to a more militant policy, demanding immediate abolition by law. His answer: "[I]t is to conserve and perpetuate the institution of slavery as now existing" (Palmer 1860, p. 6). . New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1911. Another ensured that slave owners could travel between Confederate states with their slaves. few did because of the competition with slave labor, a former slave/the Barber of Natchez who owned slaves and property, no, they were prohibited from working in certain occupations and testifying against whites in court; they could be sold back into slavery; some states forbid their entrance, most forbid them from voting, and some forbid them from public schools, no, Congress outlawed it in 1808, but thousands were smuggled in. 7879). According to this formulation, no single human family origin existed, and Black people made up a race wholly separate from the White race. Baptist and Methodist churches had opposed slaveholding members in the early years of the Republic. Instead, Calhoun insisted, slavery was a positive good. He went further, making legal arguments about the Constitution protecting states rights to preserve slavery. They believed that slavery was a good thing and it provided some sort of elegant lifestyle for white elites. Do American Freshmen Have To Live On Campus? There was, moreover, growing revulsion at the ruthlessness of slave hunters under the Fugitive Slave Law (1850), and the far-reaching emotional response to Harriet Beecher Stowes antislavery novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) further strengthened the abolitionist cause. They argued that enslaved people had good living conditions. Abolitionists were a divided group. Wilson, Charles Reagan. In what way did the Confederate Constitution differ from the United States Constitution quizlet? How did the Confederates view slavery during the war? The senator from Illinois opposed slavery but was cautious about supporting the abolitionists. Edited by Giles Gunn, SOUTH, THE Escaped from slavery to become one of the most Born February 1818? He advanced the idea of a concurrent majority, a majority of a separate region (that would otherwise be in the minority of the nation) with the power to veto or disallow legislation put forward by a hostile majority. The master-slave relationship was frequently compared to a parent-child relationship. Form of Protestantism that was devised by Christian slaves in the Chesapeake and spread to the cotton South as a result of the domestic shave trade. What hearty handshakings after the service. The seceding states made their motives clear in many ways. (Palmer 1860, p. 8). "The South: Her Peril and Her Duty." Powerful southerners like South Carolinian John C. Calhounhighlighted laws like the Tariff of 1828 as evidence of the Norths desire to destroy the southern economy and, by extension, its culture. . Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society. Which description best identifies how Christian slaveholders justified the enslavement of other human beings? to enact gradual voluntary emancipation for slaves. Retrieved April 27, 2023 from gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Which identifies an important effect of the violent slave rebellion of 1831? Washington Irving, The Slavery Issue: Western Politics and the Compromise of 1850,, Preserving the Institution of Slavery: An Overview. Having split from co-denominations in the North over the theological justification of slavery in the 1840s, southern Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches refused to reconcile themselves to a new reality in the 1860s and 1870s. what did white southern apologists believe? After Emancipation, some Southern Protestants refused to revise their proslavery views. Stephen Austin 1830s. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000. I hold then, that there never has yet existed a wealthy and civilized society in which one portion of the community did not, in point of fact, live on the labor of the other. In the enjoyment of these rights, religion demands he should be protected. Teaching with Reveal Digitals American Prison Newspapers Collection, attitudes and actions in the antebellum period, Proslavery Christianity After the Emancipation, The River Basin Surveys Preserved American Prehistory, Unmaking a Priest: The Rite of Degradation, Celebrating Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, The Strange Career of the Lady Possum of the New World, To Get Help for Sick Kids, Mothers Wrote to Washington. The Constitution itself had four clauses that indirectly addressed slavery and the slave trade though it did not actually use those terms. The condition of society in the South exempts us from the disorders and dangers resulting from this conflict; and which explains why it is that the political condition of the slaveholding States has been so much more stable and quiet than that of the North. His wife, however, had inherited several slaves. George Fitzhugh, a southern writer of social treatises, was a staunch supporter of slavery, not as a necessary evil but as what he argued was a necessary good, a way to take care of enslaved persons and keep them from being a burden on society. Before, during, and after the United States Revolutionary War, several of the original 13 British colonies abolished slavery. If the United States possesses an off, Before slavery became a fixture on the North American mainland, Europeans, both Catholics and Protestants, debated the relationship between African s, The Sky is Gray by Ernest J. Gaines, 1968, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. The right which the master has is a right not to the man, but to his labor (White 1911, p. 298). With the rise of democracy during the Jacksonian era in the 1830s, enslavers worried about the power of the majority. Why was slavery the most important cause of the Civil War? But they refused to see this defeat as a divine judgment on their beliefs and actions. What arguments does Fitzhugh use to promote slavery? Through the days leading up to the secession and during the war itself, Palmer and other preachers delivered the same message. By the beginning of the Civil War, many Southerners saw themselves as morally superior to Northerners; after all, they had never tried to force their way of life onto the North. Southerners, in contrast, were quiet, gentle, thoughtful, and given on occasion to "flights of genius" (p. 406). In the New England states, many Americans viewed slavery as a shameful legacy with no place in modern society. The practice of slavery is one of humankind's most deeply rooted institutions. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. . 72, No. What were the 4 main causes of the Civil War? System that fed slaves to the Cotton South. The second option, later known as the Anaconda Plan, recommended isolating the states in secession with a naval blockade. what did the Virginia legislature do about slavery in 1831 and 1832? I then predicted that it would commence as it has with this fanatical portion of society, and that they would begin their operations on the ignorant, the weak, the young, and the thoughtless and gradually extend upwards till they would become strong enough to obtain political control. Woolman, John However, the date of retrieval is often important. A key issue was states rights. Indeed, Virginians cited Garrison as the instigator of Nat Turners 1831 rebellion. From the early 1830s until the end of the Civil War in 1865, Garrison was the abolitionists' most dedicated campaigner. Who was the most influential spokesman for the common school movement? The master occupies towards him the place of parent or guardian. . "The Slavery Apologists Tolbert County, Maryland In the 1860 presidential election, voters chose Republican Party candidate Abraham Lincoln. New Orleans, LA: n.p., 1860. Confederate Constitution explicitly supported slavery and asserted state rights. 1830s. . By the necessary course of events, if left to themselves, we must become, finally, two people. In African American families in which husband and wife were often separated, who was typically considered the head of the family? In fact, the churches in many communities were biracial; although the slaves and their white masters did not mix with each other socially within the church, both worshipped there together (Boles 1994, p. 46). . The Metaphysical Confederacy: James Henley Thorn well and the Synthesis of Southern Values. Refer to each styles convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Harriet Tubman was like Douglass, she too had escapedenslavement and became a prominent abolitionist. Reacting to abolitionist attacks that branded its peculiar institution as brutal and immoral, the South intensified its system of slave control, particularly after the Nat Turner revolt of 1831. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Which identifies an advantage to slaves living on large plantations with stable slave populations?, Which practice provides the best evidence against the idea of benevolent planters who looked after the best welfare of their slaves?, Nonslaveholders in the South followed the leadership of slave owners because they and more. For nearly a century, the people and politicians of the Northern and Southern states had been clashing over the issues that finally led to war: economic interests, cultural values, the power of the federal government to control the states, and, most importantly, slavery in American society. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. The Antebellum South Included Virginia, South Carolina, and Louisiana. The sermon, in fact, has been widely credited with giving the moral and popular push to Louisiana's decision to secede from the Union. Black female abolitionist. Which statement is true of cotton agriculture in the pre-Civil War era? Despite his assurances that he would take no action against slavery where it existed, Lincoln was labeled an "abolitionist" by many Southern leaders. Stringfellow, Thornton. As the nation expanded in the 1830s and 1840s, the writings of abolitionistsa small but vocal group of northerners committed to ending slaveryreached a larger national audience. What was one goal of the American Colonization Society? Palmer then poses the question, "If the South is such a people, what, at this juncture, is their providential trust?" Get your fix of JSTOR Dailys best stories in your inbox each Thursday. Jolted by the assault, the South became convinced that its entire way of life would be irretrievably threatened by the election to the presidency of Abraham Lincoln (November 1860), who was opposed to the spread of slavery into the Western territories. ITHAKA. In their minds, slavery had been divinely sanctioned. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. In the South, however, clergy were confronted with trying to defend slavery. That it is inconsistent with a perfect statethat it is not absolutely a good, a blessingthe most strenuous defender of slavery ought not to permit himself to deny" (White 1911, p. 298). The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. 1860; there were about 4 million slaves and 500,000 free blacks. in 1861. At the other end of the abolitionist spectrum and in between stood such men and women as Theodore Weld, James Gillespie Birney, Gerrit Smith, Theodore Parker, Julia Ward Howe, Lewis Tappan, Salmon P. Chase, and Lydia Maria Child, all of whom represented a variety of stances, all more conciliatory than Garrisons.

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